Terraforming Market

Water purification

Catalog of manufacturers of water treatment equipment
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Drinking water treatment
Today, there are two points of view on water purification.
  1. The reverse osmotic theory, its supporters are mainly from the United States. The bottom line is that a person should receive all the necessary mineral components with food or food additives, and the water consumed by him should be as completely purified from interfering impurities as possible, even if this leads to its complete demineralization. This water quality is achieved by using reverse osmotic or distillation purification methods. In addition, this method is used for the post-treatment of water with high mineralization, the use of which leads to the occurrence of diseases associated with metabolic disorders. The main disadvantages: the high cost of technology and the difficulty of providing a balanced diet without the use of expensive mineral supplements.
  2. Adsorption, its supporters are mainly from Europe. The bottom line is that there is no need to remove all mineral components from the water. Water of this quality can be obtained by using adsorption methods of water treatment based on the selective extraction of harmful components with a slight change in its mineralization. At the same time, the chemical properties of water are preserved and its taste qualities are improved
    Methods of water purification
    1. The reverse osmotic method is based on passing the purified water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane, a "sieve" that passes water molecules, but detains ions and larger molecules. The membrane is a polymer roll element that is very sensitive to the quality of the water supplied for purification, so the actual membrane part of the reverse osmosis installation is preceded by several stages of pre-purification of water. To improve the taste qualities of purified (i.e. demineralized) water, such an installation can also be equipped with a remineralization unit. The performance of household OO installations is low, so they are also equipped with a hydraulic storage device to create the performance required by the user.
    2. Adsorption methods are based on the process of concentrating individual components of the solution (ions and molecules) on the solid surface of a porous material. Two types of adsorption are mainly used in water treatment: ion exchange and sorption. Ion exchange-interfering ions are removed from the water during their exchange for neutral ions associated with functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent. Ion-exchange adsorbents in water treatment processes are most often porous spherical polymer granules containing special functional groups for the extraction of cations (cation exchangers) or anions (anion exchangers). Physical adsorption – sorption) - interfering components are removed from the solution due to interaction directly with the surface of the adsorbent. Sorbents are used to remove organic substances, chlorine, adjust taste, smell. The most popular sorbent of this type is activated carbon. In water treatment, granular activated carbon is most often used, which is granules of coal of various origins treated with hot water vapor under special conditions to create a developed pore system. Polymer sorbents are becoming increasingly popular for the removal of organic substances of natural origin. An important characteristic of any adsorbent is its capacity, i.e. it characterizes the amount of impurities that can be removed from the water by one liter or kilogram of adsorbent. After the adsorbent is "saturated" with impurities, it loses its adsorption ability.
    "Resource" of adsorption water treatment plants
    The amount of water that can be cleaned by the installation (filter) before the loss of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. When water comes into contact with adsorbents, the water composition is adjusted, the nature and quantitative indicators of which can be calculated based on the composition of the treated water and the time of its contact with adsorbents. This contact is carried out when water passes through the adsorbent layer created in a cylindrical vessel, and its time is regulated by the speed of water flow through the adsorbent layer (productivity).
    Adsorbent capacity
    It characterizes the amount of impurities that can be removed from the water by one liter or kilogram of adsorbent. After the adsorbent is "saturated" with impurities, it loses its adsorption ability.
    Regeneration of adsorbents
    The adsorption capacity of polymer adsorbents can be completely restored with the help of special solutions. This process is called regeneration. The regeneration of activated carbons can be carried out by steam, but if they are used to remove organic substances of natural origin, this process is ineffective.
    Methods of wastewater treatment
    Currently, there is no unified classification of wastewater, but there are atmospheric water, urban wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural wastewater
    The methods of purification of polluted waters are diverse and are predetermined by the physico-chemical, physical, chemical and microbiological indicators of the impurities contained in them.
    Most often, about 85% of water is returned to the technological process and about 5% is discharged into surface sources, the rest of the water goes to losses – 10%.
    As a rule, wastewater treatment systems are built on the basis of using a set of purification methods. The determining criterion for choosing a method of water purification is its further use. The desire of specialists to maximally transfer enterprises to a closed cycle of water use leads to a deterioration in the quality of water that is used for household purposes.
    The efficiency and reliability of any cleaning device is determined by the range of values of the impurity concentration and waste water flow.
    The most common classification of cleaning methods is the following:
    • methods of mechanical cleaning – from suspended substances in the form of suspensions and emulsions;
    • physico-chemical methods of purification - from colloidal dispersed and truly dissolved impurities;
    • chemical methods of purification-from truly dissolved impurities;
    • biological methods of purification - from organic substances.
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