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Video surveillance

Catalog of manufacturers of equipment for video surveillance
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Video surveillance
Video surveillance system (Security television system) is a system of hardware and software designed for video surveillance.
The main purpose of the video surveillance system is to provide visual monitoring of the situation at the object equipped with it. As part of the solution of the tasks facing video surveillance, it is used to monitor the situation online, record information and monitor the flow of technological processes.
Video surveillance allows you to increase the efficiency of the actions of special services; reduce the influence of the human factor; implement immediate automatic counteraction to the facts of regime violations; reduce financial costs by reducing the number of special services personnel.
Depending on the type of equipment used, it can be analog (it is becoming less common) or digital. In recent years, methods of intelligent video surveillance, neural networks for processing data from video surveillance cameras have been actively introduced.
Video analytics is widely used in the state, real estate management and commercial organizations, and over the years, such areas as transport, healthcare and retail trade are increasingly in need of it.
Street video surveillance
The street video surveillance system - a system of hardware and software designed for video surveillance in open spaces of the urban environment, is often a component of a "Smart city" - includes: video surveillance and video analytics (automatic recognition of faces, state numbers); video recording cameras; situation centers, unified dispatching services on duty (EDDS); system 112; intelligent transport systems (ITS).
Increased requirements are applied to the street video surveillance system in terms of taking into account the effects of weather conditions, protection from vandalism, as well as (due to the use of budget funds) the cost of installation and maintenance.
Elements of the video surveillance system
The main elements of a video surveillance system are traditionally: video cameras, video signal processing devices, video information display devices and video information recording devices.
The components of the" Smart City " are: video surveillance and video analytics (automatic recognition of faces, state numbers); video recording cameras; situation centers, unified dispatching services on duty (EDDS); 112 system; intelligent transport systems (ITS).
The concept of safe and "smart" cities based on Russian software is already being successfully implemented throughout Russia, as well as in China, Italy and Belgium. In Russia, the subjects with the highest level of digitalization are the cities of Moscow, Perm, Tyumen, St. Petersburg, etc.
Video Surveillance Market
The demand for video surveillance equipment has declined in recent years and will continue to decline, as well as its cost, due to the increase in demand for other components of intelligent systems, but among them it continues to occupy the main position in sales. – The cost of software is growing due to the speed and increasing complexity of the tasks being solved and their diversification.
The cloud video surveillance market, being the youngest, is growing at a rapid pace and may soon match the sales of software.
Analog (PAL) video surveillance
The principle of operation of an analog video surveillance system is to transmit analog signals of PAL (NTSC) standards coming from video surveillance cameras via a coaxial cable to recording and playback devices.
To transmit analog signals over a twisted pair, you additionally have to use a special video signal receiver-transmitters.
The video signal must be received and processed by some device.
Analog video surveillance systems for these purposes use video input (video capture) boards installed in a PC or video recorders. - The signal transmission distance of a color analog camera is less than that of a black - and-white one.
The number of signal processing channels of these devices can vary from 1 to 32-64 (maximum).
Despite the obsolescence, analog video surveillance has a number of advantages:
  • Low cost
  • High level of compatibility of products from different manufacturers with each other
  • Easy selection of equipment and technological solutions
  • The focus of some installers is on analog systems.
Digital (IP) video surveillance
An IP video camera can be considered as an independent network device, the main advantages of building a video surveillance system with which are:
  • Scalability of the system.
  • No restrictions in the resolution of the video signal.
  • The number of required video surveillance cameras is reduced.
  • The possibility of remote configuration of the IP system, most of the settings
  • can be made remotely.
  • High-quality and developing software analytics for digital cameras.
  • The solutions are based on modern technologies and are constantly evolving.
The matrix of the surveillance camera
The matrix is a rectangular semiconductor wafer with a set of independent light-sensitive cells on the surface - pixels.
The image is focused by the camera lens on the matrix and the light falling on the semiconductor excites electrons. The excited electrons from each pixel are sequentially moved to the reader and form a video signal, which is further amplified and processed by the electronic system of the surveillance camera.
Matrix format
The matrix format is a rounded value of the diameter of the transmitting tube, which gives the same image as this matrix (in inches). There are formats 1", 2/3", 1/2", 1/3" and 1/4". Most often, 1/3 " matrices are installed in surveillance cameras. The larger the diagonal size of the matrix with a constant number of pixels, the smaller their mutual influence, the lower the noise level and the higher the quality of the received video signal.
Image Processing Chip (DSP)
The image sensor received an optical signal and translated it into a set of electrical pulses. Next, this flow of electrical impulses must be organized by a video stream. For this purpose, processors (image processing chips) are used.
DSP (Digital Signal Processor) is a digital signal processing processor. There are several different types of DSP processors that differ in cost and the image processing functionality performed.
Key characteristics of video cameras
Important criteria for choosing cameras for a video surveillance system are:
  • Application inside or outside (anti-vandalism).
  • The presence of a Day/ Night mode (there are various implementations of the night mode).
  • The Presence Of WDR (Wide Dynamic Range).
  • The resolution of the video image.
  • Panorama angle, tilt angle, optical magnification (for rotary PTZ cameras).
In addition, according to the execution of the camera, there are:
  • Square Chambers (Cube)
  • Cylindrical Chambers (Bullet)
  • Housing cameras (Box)
  • Dome cameras (Dome)
  • Rotary Cameras (PTZ)
IP66
The IP66 rating determines the camera's ability to prevent foreign substances (solid and liquid) from entering the case. IP stands for the degree of protection. The Waterproof IP66 marking means that the video surveillance equipment can be used outdoors. The first digit (in this case, it is 6) characterizes the rating, which is given to assess the security of the camera from solid objects. Rating 1 is the lowest, which determines the security of the camera only from large objects more than 50 mm in diameter.
Rating 6 is the highest rating, which means that the camera is dust-proof.
The second digit in the code (again, in this case, 6) determines how well the surveillance camera can withstand liquids. A rating of 1 means that there is no special protection at all. The rating of 8 points is the highest rating, that is, the camera can be used even for continuous immersion in water.
IK-rating (anti-vandality) of the video camera
IK-ratings for measuring resistance to mechanical impact. The maximum score on this scale-IK10 is determined by throwing a ball weighing into the camera
5 kg from a distance of 40 cm.
ONVIF Standard
The open industry standard ONVIF guarantees the ability to interact between network devices and software, regardless of the brand, brand or manufacturer. Equipment that supports the ONVIF standard does not require additional artificial software configuration for building video surveillance systems. And this means eliminating the costs of thin and expensive integration.
Varifocal (zoom-) lenses
Varifocal (zoom) lenses with variable focal length. A short focal length provides a wide viewing angle, up to the "fish - eye" effect, a high one-will provide a body lens effect and will make it possible to see distant objects at a narrow viewing angle. The normal viewing angle is most often comparable to what we are able to see with our own eyes.
Camera sensitivity
Sensitivity is the ability to convert light quanta into an electrical signal. Most often, the sensitivity of the camera is understood as the minimum illumination of the observation area, at which a video signal with an amplitude of 1V and a certain modulation depth is formed at the camera output with a set signal-to-noise ratio. The sensitivity is given for the specific conditions in which it was measured. The sensitivity is determined by the value of Lux / Lux (Lux). 0 Lux-means the ability to work absolutely without light.
Signal-to-noise ratio
The signal-to-noise ratio tells us about the camera's ability to generate an image of a certain quality. The signal-to-noise ratio is determined in decibels when the automatic gain control function is disabled.
BLC (Backlight Compensation)
The purpose of using BLC technology is to automatically adjust the video camera to the most favorable shooting conditions with the necessary level of leveling of oncoming light, in order to make it possible to identify the details of the observed object/person in the foreground when a light source is located in the background.
WDR (Wide Dynamic Range)
WDR is a more efficient alternative to BLC. It does not depend on the location of the object in a certain zone. Thanks to this technology, which provides the ability to shoot video with a wide dynamic range, a more detailed processing of the darkened area of the image takes place without increasing the saturation of its brighter part.
Alarm input
The alarm input allows the system to respond to various events:
  • An event recorded by a video surveillance camera. For example, the appearance of people in a certain room.
  • An event signal received from external sensors connected to video surveillance. For example, an open door.
  • Events related to the components of the video surveillance system – the termination of the image supply from the video camera or the violation of the connection between the elements of the system.
  • The signal initiated by the observer. For example, an alarm button pressed by a security officer or an organization.
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